Adaptive aromaticity

Adaptive Aromaticity in 18e Metallapentalenes

Complexes with aromaticity in both the lowest singlet state (S0) and the lowest triplet state (T1) (denoted as adaptive aromaticity) are rare because according to Hückel’s and Baird’s rules, a species could be aromatic in either the S0 or T1 state in most cases. Thus, it is particularly challenging to design species with adaptive aromaticity. Previous reports on adaptive aromaticity were mainly focused on 16e metallapentalenes.

Adaptive σ aromaticity in the rhenacyclopropene rings

Species generally exhibit one-state aromaticity either in the lowest singlet state (S0) or the lowest triplet state (T1) according to the Hückel's and Baird's rules. Hence, it is rare for species exhibit two-state aromaticity in both the S0 and T1 states (termed as adaptive aromaticity), let alone adaptive σ aromaticity. Here, we report adaptive σ aromaticity in unsaturated rhenacyclopropene rings via density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

Probing the Mechanism of Adaptive Aromaticity in Metallapyridiniums

In general, compounds exhibit one-state aromaticity in either the ground or excited state according to the Hückel’s and Baird’s rules. Thus, species with two-state aromaticity in the lowest singlet and triplet states (termed as adaptive aromaticity) are rare. Understanding the underlying mechanism for achieving adaptive aromaticity is important to enrich this rare family. Here we carry out density functional theory (DFT) calculations to probe the origin of adaptive aromaticity in metallapyridiniums.

Adaptive Aromaticity in Osmapentalene and Osmapyridinium Complexes with Carbone Ligands

Discovery of species with adaptive aromaticity, being aromatic in both the lowest-lying singlet and triplet states (S0 and T1), is a significant challenge because cyclic conjugated complexes are commonly aromatic in one state only according to Hückel’s and Baird’s rules. On the other hand, the carbone ligands containing two lone pair electrons at the carbon(0) atom have attracted considerable attention from both theoretical and experimental chemists recently.

Computational predictions of adaptive aromaticity for the design of singlet fission materials

Singlet fission has attracted extensive attention from experimentalists and theoreticians due to its ability to improve photovoltaic conversion efficiency. Still, designing singlet fission materials remains challenging. In this work, we explored the relationship between adaptive aromaticity and singlet fission potentials by computationally screening the adaptive aromatic species reported by our group.

Adaptive Aromaticity in 16-valence-electron Metallazapentalenes

According to Hückel’s and Baird’s rules, cyclic species are generally aromatic only either in the lowest singlet state (S0) or in the lowest-lying triplet ππ* excited state (T1). Thus, species with aromaticity both in S0 and T1 states (termed as adaptive aromaticity) are particularly rare. Herein, we carry out density functional theory (DFT) calculations to examine the aromaticity of 16e metallapentalenes containing heteroatoms (N, O).

Osmapentalyne and Osmapentalene Complexes Containing Boron Monofluoride Ligands: Structure, Bonding and Adaptive Aromaticity

Osmapentalyne and osmapentalene complexes, now termed as carbolong species, have attracted considerable attention due to their novel structures, reactivities, chelating properties as well as Möbius and adaptive aromaticity. On the other hand, boron monofluoride (BF), a 10-electron diatomic molecule isoelectronic to carbon monoxide (CO), is unstable below 1800°C in the gas phase, and preparation of its metal complex is particularly challenging.

Adaptive Aromaticity in Metallasilapentalynes

Cyclic molecules with 4n + 2 or 4n electrons are aromatic in the lowest singlet state (S0) or the lowest triplet state (T1) according to Hückel and Baird’s rules. Thus, the design of aromatic species in both the S0 and T1 states (termed as adaptive aromaticity) is particularly challenging. In this work, we demonstrate that metallasilapentalynes show adaptive aromaticity supported by structural, magnetic, and electronic indices, in sharp contrast to metallapentalynes, which exhibit aromaticity in the S0 state only.

Adaptive σ‐Aromaticity in an Unsaturated Three-Membered Ring

Based on Hückel’s and Baird’s rules, species are aromatic either in the lowest singlet state (S0) or the lowest triplet state (T1) only. Thus, species with adaptive aromaticity (with aromaticity in both the S0 and T1 states) is particularly rare. On the other hand, σ-aromaticity in the T1 state has been underdeveloped, let alone adaptive σ-aromaticity. Herein, via various aromaticity indices including NICS, ACID and EDDB, we demonstrate adaptive s-aromaticity in an unsaturated three-membered ring, which is a traditional area dominated by π-aromaticity.

Adaptive σ Aromaticity and Triplet Ground State in Tetraatomic Boron Species

In comparison with the widely recognized π aromaticity, σ aromaticity is a less developed concept in chemistry, especially for unsaturated systems. Moreover, most studies on σ aromaticity have been mainly limited to the ground state of saturated systems; unsaturated species with σ aromaticity in the excited state have never been reported.