Pentafulvenes are dipolar hydrocarbons since they shift their π-electrons to achieve Hückel aromaticity and thus the electron donating groups at the exocyclic position can enhance their aromaticity. Silapentafulvenes are analogues of pentafulvene formed by the replacement of the carbon atoms at the exocyclic CC double bond with a silicon atom in pentafulvene. It remains unclear how the aromaticity of 5-silapentafulvenes and 6-silapentafulvenes can be changed due to the polarization of the CSi double bond.
triplet ground state
According to Hückel’s and Baird’s rules, cyclic conjugated species are aromatic either in the ground state or in the excited state only. Thus, species with aromaticity in both states (denoted as adaptive aromaticity) are particularly rare. Here we carry out density functional theory calculations on a series of osmapyridine and osmapyridinium complexes (96 species) and find that two of them display adaptive aromaticity, which was verified by various aromaticity indices including HOMA, ELFπ, MCI, ACIDπ plots and the heat of hydrogenation.